M. Chen-Zion, Y. Bassukevitz and R. Beitner (1992). Sequence of insulin effects on cytoskeleton and cytosolic phosphofructokinase, mitochondrial hexokinase, glucose 1,6-bisphosphate and fructose 2,6-bisphosphate levels, and the antagonistic action of calmodulin inhibitors, in diaphragm muscle. Int. J. Biochem. 10, p. 1661-1667.
Time-curves of insulin effects on energy-producing systems in different cellular compartments of rat diaphragm muscle have revealed: (a) a rapid (within minutes) and transient stimulatory effect of insulin on cytoskeletal phosphofructokinase and aldolase and mitochondrial hexokinase. (b) A slower and consistent stimulatory effect on glucose 1,6-bisphosphate level, with concomitant gradual activation of cytosolic phosphofructokinase. Fructose 2,6-bisphosphate levels were not changed by insulin. (c) Lactate concentration correlated with the stimulation of cytoskeletal and cytosolic glycolysis. 2. Calmodulin antagonists, trifluoperazine or CGS 9343B, prevented all these effects of insulin. 3. These results suggest that cytoskeletal glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidation are the source of ATP for the rapid actions of insulin, whereas cytosolic glycolysis is the source of ATP for the slow actions of insulin. Calmodulin is involved in all these effects of insulin.